Since ancient time, herbal drugs were highly used in the prevention and cure of various human illnesses. In India, Azadirachta indica being commonly known as Neem or Margosa is one of the multi-functional trees; belonging to Meliaceae family. In 1992, the US National Academy of Sciences was published a report entitled ‘Neem- a tree for solving global problems’. It is still considered as ‘village dispensary’ throughout the India. There are two species of Azadirachta which have been investigated; Azadirachta indica that is found in the Indian subcontinent and Azadirachta excelsa Kack that is homegrown to Indonesia and Philippines. A large number of pharmacologically active substances have been identified and isolated from the different parts of neem including azadirachtin, meliacin, gedunin, salanin, nimbin, valassin and various other components which are derived from these main compounds. Many different studies have been evaluated and authenticated for its various traditional and pharmacological activities like itching, leprosy, wound healing, spermicidal, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, antidiabetic and analgesic etc. In the beginning of 1979, patenting on neem was started by CSIR to separate the active compounds from neem oil. Its great implantation fights with soil erosion, global warming, deforestations and desertification world-wide. In 2002, World Neem Conference raised the neem tree as an industrial or commercial plant. This review is going to explore comprehensively; traditional, pharmacological potential along with patenting, environmental & industrial significant of various parts of neem tree with safety concerns.
2. Incidence and Prevalence of Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Thyroid Disorders and Eclampsia in Khammam Region, Telangana State
Ravali*, B. Sravani, P. Suresh Kumar https://doi.org/10.32463/rphs.2017.v03i04.21
Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), Thyroid dysfunction and Eclampsia in pregnant women prior to delivery. Methods: An observational retrospective study was conducted between December 2016 and June 2017 in a District Headquarters Hospital and two other tertiary antenatal care centers on pregnant women who delivered between 37 and 42 weeks of gestational age. The study participants data was collected prior delivery who were diagnosed as GDM with Random Blood Sugar levels ≥ 140mg/dl, hyperthyroidism with ≤1.1 µIU/ml and hypothyroidism with ≥ 5.5 µIU/ml and Eclampsia in women who had a grand mal seizure with features of preeclampsia. Results: A total of 265 pregnant women was included whose information was sampled. A prevalence of 10.5% (n = 28) was identified with GDM, 77.7% (n = 206) was identified with Thyroid Disorders and 11.6% (n = 31) with Eclampsia who were categorized into rural and urban communities based on age groups. Conclusion: Ignorance regarding antenatal check-up, lack of transport and lack of early communication with a tertiary hospital play an important role for high incidence and prevalence of complications in pregnancy in Khammam region, Telangana State.
3. Clinical Study on Prevalence of Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis in Khammam District, Telangana – An Observational Study
Humera Ayesha Mohammad*1, Kavya Yeluru1, Suresh Kumar.P2, Vijay Chowhan K3 https://doi.org/10.32463/rphs.2017.v03i04.22
Background: The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of multi drug resistant tuberculosis in Khammam district. The objective is to create awareness among healthcare personnel and patients regarding MDR-TB. The study was conducted over a period of six months, i.e., December 2016 – June 2017. Result: A total of 54 MDR-TB cases were studied. According to age groups 32 subjects are in the young and middle age groups which comprise a total of about 59.1 whereas in early age there are 6.8%. Many variables are considered in this study out of which alcohol was rated as highest because 59.2% subjects in the study were alcoholics. A total of 31.8% smokers was found out. Diabetes was also a variation with 27.8% subjects suffering. A total of 18.5% of subjects was suffering from TB with HIV. Conclusion: The study reveals that the subjects suffered from resistance to category-I drugs and hence they are transferred to category-IV drugs. Tuberculosis is a disease that mainly affects the people of age groups 20-40 and is more prevalent in males than that of females. Variables like alcohol consumption rated as highest risk factor, followed by smoking, diabetes and HIV respectively.
4. Evaluation of Prescribing Patterns in lower Respiratory Tract Infections at Government Hospital – a Retrospective Study
Hemamanogna Narne*, Sushma Nimmagadda, Naveen Yaddanapalli, Koteswari Poluri https://doi.org/10.32463/rphs.2017.v03i04.23
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the prescribing trends in Lower Respiratory Tract Infections at Government Fever Hospital. Methods: A retrospective, observational, cross sectional study was carried out by collecting prescription of patients admitted to male and female departments of government fever hospital. The data were analyzed by using SAS software. Results and Conclusion: Prevalence of LRTIs was observed more in males than in females. Pulmonary tuberculosis was the most frequently observed disease, followed by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and Consolidation. Antibiotics, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, vitamins and minerals and analgesics were most commonly prescribed drugs, of those ceftriaxone was the common antibiotic followed by amoxicillin clavulanate, metronidazole, piperacillin+tazobactum and Salbutamol was commonly prescribed bronchodilator followed by ipratropium. Of corticosteroids dexamethasone was mostly prescribed drug. Other classes of drugs such as vitamins and minerals, anti-fungal, antiemetics, benzodiazepines, proton pump inhibitors, H2 receptor blockers and antihistamines were prescribed in patients with need. In some patients more number of antibiotics was prescribed, this may lead to development of resistance. But, the severity of the patient condition influences the treatment plan. Of 400 patients included in study, 331 (82.8%) patients were observed with complete prescription and 69 (17.2%) patients with incomplete prescription as 52 patients of them were left against medical advice and 17 patients were absconding.
5. Evaluation of Prescription Pattern and Quality of life in Acne in Tertiary Care Hospital in North Indian population
Nalini Negi1, Sumir Kumar2, Sourabh Kosey1, Vir Vikram Sharma3 https://doi.org/10.32463/rphs.2017.v03i04.24
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prescription pattern and Quality of Life of patients and severity of the disease by using Cardiff Acne Disability Index and Global Acne Grading System score respectively. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in North India with 150 samples of patients included into the study. The prescription pattern comprehends the information about the prescribed drugs and also their dosing pattern for different indications that are currently being used in clinical practice. The prescription pattern varies according to the severity of the disease. Results: The cases in the study diagnosed were mostly of acne vulgaris (96.7%), followed by acne conglobata (1.3%), acne rosaceae (1.3%) and acne fulminans (0.7%). Conclusion: It was noted that oral Isotretinoin was the drug of choice for the treatment of moderate and severe forms and antibiotics included into the therapy were minocycline, clindamycin, azithromycin and erythromycin for mild and severe forms. There was not a strong degree of association between therapy and improvement in Cardiff Acne Disability Index and Global Acne Grading System but by observing overall Cardiff Acne Disability Index improvement it can be estimated that the prescription practice used for therapy enhances Quality of Life of the patient.
Objective: The objective of this study was to find out the burden of menstrual problems and factors affecting adolescent school girls. Methods: Study population included all the adolescent school going girls of 10-19 years age group, residing in the field practice area of RHTC Achrol. The study began in January, 2015 till the estimated sample size of 400 was achieved. Results: Menorrhagia (6 to 8 days) was seen in 104 (26.0%) adolescent girls. 72 (18.0%) girls had polymenorrhoea (<20 days) & 6 (1.5%) had oligomenorrhoea (>35 days). Conclusion: The study revealed that menstrual disorders like oligomenorrhoea, hypomenorrhoea, polymenorrhoea and menorrhagia ranged from 1.5% to 26.0% and around 20% girls had PMS. As per GOI through Rajiv Gandhi scheme for empowerment of adolescent girls -SABLA in an effort to provide adolescent reproductive and sexual health information and services along the continuum of care, community based intervention and demand generation initiatives should be linked to facility based service across all levels of health system.