Research in Pharmacy and Health Sciences

ISSN: 2455 5258
An International Peer Review Journal

Volume 3, Issue 3: July 2017 – September 2017

1.A cross-sectional study of characteristics of street children in Jaipur city, Rajasthan
Sonal Yadav*, Anuj Jhakar , Priyanka Sharma , Samar Hossain , Vandna Sen
https://doi.org/10.32463/rphs.2017.v03i03.13
Abstract
Objective: To study the socio-demographic profile of street children in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study. Material and Method: Children between 5-15 years residing on the streets of Jaipur city were the study population. Result: Majority of the street children (74.5%) were in 9 to 13 years of age group followed by 5-9 years (13.5%) and 13-15 years (12.0%). 91.0% of street children were males. 65.3% street children were from nuclear family. Out of 400 street children 45.8% had left home to earn money followed by 21.0% and 11.8% street children who left home due to domestic violence and to avoid parental restrictions respectively. Peer pressure was cited as reason by only 4.8% street children. Conclusion: During the study it was also observed that approximately half of the street children i.e. 45.8% had left home to earn money 21.0% had left home due to domestic violence and 11.8% street children had left, to avoid parental restrictions. Death of the father and mother were the reasons to leave their homes for 5.8% and 4.8% street children respectively.

2.A Study on Knowledge, Attitude, Awareness and Practice About HIV/AIDS among different age group of Karachi, Pakistan
Safia Mehmood, Sheema Zia, Nida Aziz, Omama Sajid
https://doi.org/10.32463/rphs.2017.v03i03.14
Abstract
The AIDS is one of the most complicated health problems of the 21st century and it threatens the world population. AIDS spread at an alarming rate. This was a descriptive study to determine the knowledge, awareness, and practice about HIV among different age groups. The study carried out in Karachi, Pakistan during the period of January 2016-april 2016, in which 82 peoples are participated; 65 peoples having age in between 18-30, people’s lies in 31-40 years, while only 4 peoples having age above 40. From which 91% peoples thought HIV is dangerous virus and 51% peoples having misconception that it cause AIDS on initial stage and does not have any effect on CD4+. Majority of peoples aware about transmission of AIDS through intercourse, and during pregnancy. But the study show the high level of misbelieve also in mode of transmission that HIV transmit through sweat, saliva etc. Majority of the peoples have knowledge that HIV-1 is the most common type found worldwide. Also large number of peoples have knowledge that HIV weak immune system by destroying CD4+ and require long exposure to progress AIDS. Less than 15% of peoples strongly agree that AIDS is common in women. This misconception reflex the lack of knowledge and awareness in the HIV transmission and gender relation. Also majority of peoples thought that lack of knowledge is major barrier in the proper cure of disease. So increasing knowledge by awareness programs; sexual prevention; by starting national testing resources and curing poverty will cured AIDS in Pakistan. Newly drugs are introduced which can stop the progression of AIDS.

3.Heat Shock Proteins (Hsp): Classifications and Its Involvement in Health and Disease
Karuna Datta, Kshitij Rahalkar, Dinesh Kumar Dubey
https://doi.org/10.32463/rphs.2017.v03i03.15
Abstract
For the reason that no model will ever totally replicate clinical human wound healing, it is necessary that the model operated be selected with care. Heat shock proteins (HSP) are articulated in response to numerous biological stresses, comprising heat, high pressures, and toxic composites. It is also one of the mainly bountiful cellular proteins found under non-stress situation.Hsp70 and Hsp90 refer to families of heat shock proteins on the order of 70,90 kilodaltons in size, respectively. The small 8-kilodalton protein ubiquitin, which marks proteins for degradation, also has features of a heat shock protein. Cells are attentive about getting these folds right for the reason that mis folded proteins can change the normal life of the cell. In some cases change is good, in others deadly. When Heat Shock Proteins90 is conceded the number of morphological alterations upsurges, which lead to creation of inactive or abnormally active polypeptides.

4.Prescribing trends of antidiabetic drugs in diabetic and hypertensive diabetic patients in an urban tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh
Mohammad Didar Khan , Md. Ibrahim , Md. Mizanur Rahman Moghal*, Dipti debnath , Asma Kabir , Munny Das, Md. Safiqul Islam, Md. Nazmul Hassan. Md. Tanvir Ahmed Manik, Md. Tanvir Haider Tanna, Azmari Sultana, Umme Salma Mitu, A.S.M Abrasam Shohan
https://doi.org/10.32463/rphs.2017.v03i03.16
Abstract
Objective: The present epidemiological study was conducted with the objectives of providing an insight into the current use of antidiabetic medications to diabetics and hypertensive diabetics in urban areas and determining how the patient factors influence the prescribing of antidiabetic medications. Methodology: Data of patients of past two years were collected from Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The details were entered in the structured patient profile form. Data were statistically analyzed using the Microsoft Excel 2007 software. Result: A total of 958 patient’s data were collected and analyzed of which 632 (65.97 %) were males and 326 (34.03 %) were females. These patients were further categorized based on their age. 330 patients (34.45 %) belonged to the age group 20 – 44 years, 504 (52.61 %) to the age group 45 – 65 years and 124 (12.94 %) to the age group 65 – 80 years. 684 (71.4%) patients out of the 958 patients studied were suffering from coexisting hypertension. Co-existing hypertension was found to be more prevalent in the age group 45 – 65 years (67.69%) and was found more in females (84.04%). Conclusion: Metformin was the oral hypoglycemic which was the highest prescribed. In hypertensive diabetics Metformin and Pioglitazone were most frequently prescribed drugs. Biguanides and Insulin were the most commonly prescribed antidiabetics. A combination of two or more drugs of different classes was prescribed to hypertensive diabetics. It is necessary to have an improved understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of diabetes to focus on research efforts appropriately.

5.A study on the effectiveness of music therapy on depression among elderly people at selected old age home: An epidemiological study on public health perspective in Hyderabad
Gangadhar Rao Kalapala*, B Ravi Zechariah, PK Babu, Thufail, Sailu, Srujan
https://doi.org/10.32463/rphs.2017.v03i03.17
Abstract
Background: Aging is a worldwide issue in our society, Elderly people living in old age homes may suffer from sadness, pain, and isolation. Many of them may experience seasonal affective disorder (SAD). SAD is a common condition where individuals present with depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure, feelings of guilt, disturbed sleep and/or appetite, low energy and poor concentration. Music has been used more and more frequently and consciously as a mean of care to reduce or stabilize symptoms and/or complications arising therefrom. Method: The study employs the pre-test and post-test for assessing the level of depression among the elderly persons in the old age homes, and with respect to the demographic variables which are used for assessing the levels of depression among both males and females from the study. Results: Findings clearly showed that there was mild level of depression among elderly people before the intervention and the level of depression was decrease after the intervention (music therapy. The study finding show that, the mean post – level of depression scores (1.53) was lower than the mean pre-test score (2.03). Overall 63.3% of samples 38 have mild depression and 20% of the samples 12 have severe depression and remaining are normal in pre-test. Conclusion: The study findings were supported by a pre-experimental study, conducted to investigate the effective of music therapy on depression among elderly people staying in the old age home.

6.Comparative prevalence of prescription errors in randomly collected samples from hospital pharmacy and community pharmacy, Punjab, Pakistan
Sabeeha Kausar*, Muhammad Imran
https://doi.org/10.32463/rphs.2017.v03i03.18
Abstract
Objective: This study was conducted to analyze and evaluate the prevalence of prescription errors, to optimize the medication effectiveness and patient safety and to encourage the rational prescribing practices. Method: sample of 250 prescriptions was randomly collected from outdoor hospital pharmacy (n=157) and from community pharmacy (n=93) and analyzed manually to estimate the prevalence of prescription errors. Results: Results calculated by using SPPS Version 23 and MS Excel 2013 are as follow; 41.4% prescription collected from outdoor hospital pharmacy presented significant prescribing errors while 54.7% in sample collected from community pharmacy. The prescriptions were segregated and errors were estimated using following parameters; dose, dosage form, dosing frequency, drug-drug interactions, spelling, and duplication of generic, therapy duration and unnecessary drugs. Conclusion: The prevalence of prescribing errors in sample of community pharmacy was 12.37% greater than found in prescriptions of hospital pharmacy. The prevalence of prescription errors can be reduced by physician education, using automated prescribing systems and immediate review of prescription by pharmacist before dispensing of prescription items to patients.

7.Bioavailability and pharmacokinetic study of Metformin 500 mg tablet (SR formulations) in healthy human volunteers
Ashish Kumar, Pradeep Singh, Garima Mishra
https://doi.org/10.32463/rphs.2017.v03i03.19
Abstract
Bioavailability and Bioequivalence studies have become an important part of the clinical research in India. This study was performed to find out the safety and efficacy of two Metformin 500 mg tablet (SR formulations). This study was an open label, balanced, randomized, two treatment, two periods, two sequences, single dose, cross over bioequivalence study under fasting condition. Metformin Hydrochloride (SR) 500 mg tablet was the Test formulation and Dibeta SR tablet [containing Metformin Hydrochloride (SR) 500 mg] was the Reference standard. Volunteers were randomly given a single oral dose of the test and the reference formulation under fasting condition, with a washout period of 07 days. Drug concentration in the plasma samples were quantified by using a validated method on LC/MS/MS. Win Nonlin Version 5.2 software was used for statistical calculations. Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ values of the test formulation and reference standard were 89.13%, 87.46%, 88.29%, and 112.44%, 123.85% and 123.87%, respectively. Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0- ∞ values of the test formulation and reference standard fall within the acceptable range of 80–125%. So, the present study concludes that the test formulation is bioequivalent to the reference standard.

 

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