High Performance Thin layer Chromatography (HPTLC) technique is a sophisticated and automated form of the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with better and advanced separation efficiency and detection limits, and is often an excellent alternative to GC and HPLC. Applications of HPTLC include phytochemical and biomedical analysis, herbal drug quantification, active ingredient quantification, fingerprinting of formulations, and check for adulterants in the formulations. HPTLC is useful in detecting chemicals of forensic concern. Various advance techniques in reference to HPTLC like hyphenations in HPTLC-MS, HPTLC-FTIR and HPTLC-Scanning Diode Laser have made HPTLC a power analytical tool in the field of analysis. Experts are of the opinion that HPTLC future to combinatorial approach and the utilization of instrumental HPTLC toward the analysis of drug formulations, bulk drugs, and natural products will increase in the future
2. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of new quinazolinone-4 derivatives
Ali Gamal Al-kaf1*, Anas Ahmad Almahbashi2, M’Hammed Ansar4, Azeddine Ibrahimi3, Abdul-Malik Abudunia3 https://doi.org/10.32463/rphs.2016.v02i04.44
In this study, we have two new compounds of quinazolinone-4 derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for some of their pharmacological activities that were predicted by computer program (PASS), and also testified for their yield obtained by using some of strong polar aprotic solvents.
The new compounds were synthesized in the lab by allowing interaction of 2-phenylbenzoxazinones-4 with p-aminobenzenesulfonamides in a medium of acid catalyst and strong polar aprotic solvents DMSO.In the pharmacological studies, the synthesized compounds have been investigated in vitro for their toxicity and antimalarial activity according to WHO method.
The pharmacological studies approved that the new compounds have low toxicity, since compound A gave class VI (harmless) and compound B gave class V (practically non toxic) according to Sidorov’s classification. For the antimalarial activity, the investigated compounds (A&B) inhibit the maturation of ring form of plasmodium falciparum to schizont form.
We concluded from our study that the new synthesized quinazolinone-4 derivatives were preferably obtained with usage of strong polar aprotic solvents especially DMSO. In addition, the pharmacological investigations have confirmed the prediction of PASS that testifies the high reliability of the obtained results.
3. Problems Facing the Arab Pharmaceutical Industry: A Case Study from Yemen
Mohammed Al-Shakka*1, Ebtesam Abood1, Adel Al-Dhubhany2, Sami Abdo Radman Aldubai3, Khaled Said4, Nisha Jha5, P Ravi Shankar6 https://doi.org/10.32463/rphs.2016.v02i04.45
Because of the almost-instant connection with the welfare and well-being of individuals, pharmaceutical industry stands prominently as a very important factor for the improvement and progress of a healthy productive nation. These days, pharmaceutical industry thrives as one of the largest and exponentially expanding global industries. Nonetheless, millions of people in low income developing countries, have to suffer from the fatal consequences of the inaccessibility and non-availability of essential drugs. This is also happening in Yemen, where the pharmaceutical manufacturers sector have to face up to many challenges.
The Yemen Drug Company (YEDCO) was founded in 1964 by the Yemeni government as it collaborated with private investors. It was endorsed as a company with the expertise in the medicinal drug marketing. YEDCO started its work by taking in drugs from foreign companies and then locally marketing and distributing them. In 1982, YEDCO built the first medicinal factory for drugs in Sana’a. Since then, seven companies were set up to manufacture medicines in Yemen.
The expanding population has led to the need to have more pharmaceutical products. It may be understandable that pharmaceutical manufacturer companies are also hit by the political crisis in the country. Inadequate amount of fuel and raw material as well as low security status were some of the underlying factors behind these ill-effects in Yemen.
Imported drugs make up about nearly 90% % of the pharmaceutical market compared to 10% drugs from the domestic market. This situation has led to an additional burden being shouldered by the national economy, where Yemen spends about US$263 million annually on pharmaceutical drugs, in reference to the national Supreme Drugs Authority.
Although there is a very quick growth in the population and drugs consumption, the pharmaceutical industry has not been very active, where global pharmaceutical products play their role dominantly on the domestic market. The pharmaceutical production necessitates skilled human resources like university graduates. By contrast, the government and the private sector should also motivate the pharmaceutical industry and make use of the local employment
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are considered among important causes of morbidity and mortality. In order to minimize the harmful effects of medicines, countries have developed their own pharmacovigilance mechanisms. Yemen is a developing country located in Southern West of Asia which launched its own national pharmacovigilance program. The current pharmacovigilance program started with a limited activities implemented over a restricted area of the country and received only limited ADR reports. Though the program is successful to a certain extend, still there is a scope for improvement. This review addressed the drug regulation in Yemen, including the implementations and limitations of these regulation, highlighting the need for pharmacovigilance and go throughout the different stages of pharmacovigilance activities in Yemen and, finally suggesting measures and steps to foster pharmacovigilance activities to achieve the desired health care outcomes in Yemen.