Research in Pharmacy and Health Sciences

ISSN: 2455 5258
An International Peer Review Journal

Volume 2, Issue 2: April 2016 – June 2016

1. Evaluation of anti-Diabetic Activity for Ethanoic extract of Syzygium cumini leaf in Dexamethasone induced diabetic rats
Chattu Maheswararao
Syzygium cumini is commonly known as insulin plant in India. Consumption of leaves of this plant are believed to lower blood glucose level in healthy normal and diabetic individuals. The present study was planned to evaluate the effect of the leaves of syzygium cumini leaves on dexamethasone induced hyperglycemic rats. MaleWistar rats (n=6) were treated with 10mg/kg of dexamethasone subcutaneously for 20 days from 11th day to 20 days. Different groups  received 100mg/kg plant extract in distill water and  glibenclamide  500µg/kg  per orally on plasma blood glucose level, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride level, HDL, LDL and Serum VLDL were observed. Dexamethasone caused an increase blood glucose level, serum total cholesterol, serum triglyceride level,  Serum HDL ,Serum LDL and Serum VLD and compare with normal control[ **P<0.01]. In the dexamethasone model  100mg/kg p.o. of  Ethanolic extract of syzygium cumini leaf  showed significant decrease in blood glucose level, serum total cholesterol , serum triglyceride level,  Serum HDL ,Serum LDL and Serum VLDL when compared to dexamethasone control[l.**P<0.01]. The study results concluded Syzygium cumini proved to be effective in treatment of Type-II Diabetes mellitus owing to its ability to decrease insulin resistance.

2. Solubility Enhancement of Poorly Soluble Drug Simvastatin by Solid Dispersion Technique
Neelima Rani T*, Pavani A, Sobhita RaniP, Srilakshmi N
This study aims to formulate solid dispersions (SDs) of Simvastatin (SIM) to improve the aqueous solubility, dissolution rate and to facilitate faster onset of action. Simvastatin is a BCS class II drug having low solubility & therefore low oral bioavailability. In the present study, SDs of simvastatin different drug-carrier ratios were prepared by kneading method. The results showed that simvastatin solubility & dissolution rate enhanced with polymer SSG in the ratio 1:7 due to increase in wetting property or possibly may be due to change in crystallinity of the drug.

3. Multiple Drug Resistance in Typhoid Fever: A Case Report
Sabeeha Kausar
A 20-years-old girl was examined in hospital premises having the symptoms like fever, abdominal cramps, diarrhea and fatigue since last week. Palpation revealed discomfort in left upper and lower abdomen. Ultrasonography revealed hepatomegaly and increased spleen size. Hematological tests revealed anemia and typhoid test was positive for IgG. The Widal test showed that patient serum was agglutinated with lipolysacharide and flagellarproteins. The antigen of serotype S.typhi was also present. Patient was diagnosed with typhoid fever. First-line therapy was penicillin that remained uneffective. Second line therapy given was quinolones; that also remained uneffective. Antibiotic susceptibility test showed that strains were resistant to multiple drugs like chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole. Finally, rational therapy was third generation cephalosporin i.e. ceftriaxone. After one-week of therapy, patient physical symptoms disappear and no relapse occurred during follow up.

4. Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight among Adolescent School Children in Jaipur, India
Hossain S*, Singh S, Samdarshi N, Khatri V
Objective: The potential public health problem that is emerging now a days is an increasing incidence of childhood obesity and overweight in developing countries. It lead to a number of health related problems among children. This study was carried outto study the prevalence of obesity and overweight among adolescent school children of Achrol, Jaipur. Moreover, this study was alsoto identify any differences as per age, gender, life style disorders and diet preference. Setting and design: It was a school based cross-sectional study carried out over a period of 2 months in three different schools of Achrol village. Materials and methods: Adolescent school children between 12 to 15 years of age were analyzed by a random sampling procedure in three different selected schools. Results: The overall prevalence of obesity was 2% and of overweight was 10.2% among adolescent school children. The prevalence of overweight was 9.5% among boys and 10.9% among girls indicating that girls were at a greater risk of becoming obese. Conclusion: Overweight was marginally higher in the pubertal age groups of 13 to 15 years in Achrol and timely intervention is required for its control.

5. A Cross-sectional Study on the Level of Perceived Stress and Self-reported Morbidity among Call Handlers Working in Call Centers in Gurgaon, Haryana
Hossain S*, Hossain Q, Singh S, Samdarshi N
Objective: To study prevalence of self reported mental health problems among call center employees and to determine the risk factors associated with them. Setting and Design: Study design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Study period: 3months (September – November 2014). Sampling technique: Purposive sampling method. Material and methods: 200 Call centre employee working in a call centre of Gurgaon. Statistical measures: Percentage, proportions, Chi-square test Results: Among all 200 call centre employees, 140(70%) were suffering from mental health problems. Anxiety 178(89%) was most common mental health problem. There was significant difference in prevalence of mental illness in relation to age, gender, education, religion, sleep pattern and family history of illness of call centre employee. Conclusion: About two third of all the call centre employees are suffering from mental health problems. Long term measures are required to maintain sound mental health of call centre employee.

6. Response of Plant growth regulators on leaf photosynthetic pigments of pot marigold
Seyedeh Fatemeh Moosavi Sardoo
Effect of gibberellic acidon marigold (Calendula Officinalis L.) was evaluated in a pot culture experiment. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized design including 12 treatments and four replications was carried out. Main factor was foliar application stages (first, second and third) and sub factor included different concentrations of GA3(0, 50, 150 and 250 mg L-1). Results showed that foliar application of GA3had positive effect on photosynthetic pigments. Effect of different concentrations of GA3on chlorophyll a was significant (p<0.01). Chlorophyll a content was enhanced by increase in GA3concentration up to 250 mg L-1 treatment of 250mg L-1 resulted in production of 7.78­µg/L-1chlorophyll a, the index which was to some extent dropped in other concentrations. Different concentrations of GAhad significant effect on chlorophyll b (p<0.01). Chlorophyll b was increased by increase in GA3concentration up to 250mgL-1. the highest rate of total chlorophyll content and total pigment in three times of application and one application of 250 mg L-1 was 14.6 and 15.4 µg/L-1 respectively; whereas the lowest chlorophyll and pigment content was observed in one foliar application of control treatment with mean value as 4.67 and 5.5 µg/L-1.

7. Overview of the Pharmacological Management of Neuropathic Pain
Virendra Yadav*, Manish Singh, Manoj Shukla, Ashish Singh, Virendra Shukla
Neuropathic pain refers lesions or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system either in the periphery or centrally. Examples of neuropathic pain include painful polyneuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, and post-stroke pain. Clinically, neuropathic pain is characterized by spontaneous ongoing or shooting pain and evoked amplified pain responses after noxious or non-noxious stimuli. neuropathic pain is treated as a ‘blanket condition’ in this guideline regardless of its aetiologies, unless there is valid and robust clinical and health economics evidence that shows the clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness of a particular treatment for a specific neuropathic pain condition. Management of neuropathic pain requires an interdisciplinary approach, centered around pharmacological treatment. A better understanding of neuropathic pain and in particular of the translation of pathophysiological mechanisms into sensory signs will lead to a more effective and specific mechanism-based treatment approach.

8. Selfie Syndrome: A Disease of New Era
Sai Krishna G*, Komal Krishna T
Over a period of time, technological advancement has given us new addiction disorders. Last two decades were known for computer addiction disorder and internet addiction disorders. Smartphone has included in our daily life that without which we cannot survive. Many of today generation Smartphone‟s are equipped with high resolution camera, which we call it as “selfie” camera. Though people were fond of taking photographs of their own and others since many decades, with selfie camera it has led to an extreme level. It is coupled with posting the selfie photographs on social networking sites. Further they are waiting for comments and opinions of friends and others. This has led to a chain of reactions leading to a complex addiction disorder which we may easily be called as “Selfie addiction disorder/Selfie syndrome”.

9. Self-medication in Underserved Population in India: A Review
Akshay Parihar, Thuy Tien Tran, Thanveer Gadwal, Rajesh Balkrishnan, Isha Patel*
Self-medication is a common practice in treating symptoms due to acute and chronic illnesses. It is a significant health dilemma in India. Exposure to advertising, low level of literacy, short duration of ailments, leftover medications, geographical barriers, embarrassment, affordability and health insurance are reasons for individuals opting for self-medication. Underserved populations in India are more likely to experience or accept self-medication due to these reasons. The major problem with self-medication is misdiagnosis, which can further perpetuate more complications. Furthermore, treating adverse events from self-medication can financially burden individuals and the healthcare systems alike. Healthcare professionals such as pharmacists can play an important role in minimizing the risks associated with self-medication through appropriate counseling and dissemination of accurate information to their patients.  Recommendations for minimizing risks of self-medication include, increasing healthcare education for the public; especially the underserved populations, creating and reinforcing stricter government regulations on advertisements by drug companies, improving knowledge and comprehension of the side effects for drugs, increasing better communication between patients and healthcare providers, and improving access and quality healthcare for underserved populations. This review focuses on the reasons why individuals practice self-medication, the risks involved, and discusses possible recommendations for alleviating those risks related to self-medication.

10. Hair Dye Poisoning: A Case Report
Sripraharshita Gadi*, Chandra Sekhar K, Mahaboob Basha Shaik, Durga Prasad TS
Hair dye has become more widely used domestic product for suicidal attempts. In this case, we have observed rare complications of a local hair dye to an extent of the life-threatening condition. There is no specific antidote for such poisoning and supportive therapy can save the life of the patient. In order to avoid the incorrect usage of domestic products, awareness programs need to be conducted to educate the public.

11. A review on extraction and phytochemical screening methods
Anuj Agarwal*, Ashish Kumar, Bhuvnesh Kumar Singh, Neelanchal Trivedi, K. K. Jha
Plants are the source of different drugs belonging to various therapeutic categories like antidiabetics, antispasmodics, antihypertensive, anticancer, antidepressants, antimicrobials, etc. Plants are used to treat various ailments and these plants have been used by different individuals and tribals worldwide. Use of plants to treat various ailments have also been mentioned in Ayurveda. Along these lines, various researchers are involved in isolating and assessing different bioactive molecules, to be isolated from various plant sources. Isolation of bioactive molecules is not an easy task for researchers. This review gives a focus on extraction and phytochemical screening methods along with their merits and demerits.

12. Book review: Deadly medicines and organized crime
Shankar PR*, Alshakka MAM
Clinical trials have attracted negative attention recently. The degree of control of the pharmaceutical industry over the design, conduct and analysis of clinical trials has been criticized. Healthcare professionals increasingly rely on data obtained from clinical trials and from meta-analysis and systematic reviews. The process of publishing clinical trials and framing clinical practice guidelines is being increasingly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.

13. Role of Community Pharmacist in the prevention and management of Cardiovascular Diseases: A pilot study
Maria Ayub*, Sumayya Khurram, Uroosa Maqbool, Aniqa Malick, Faiza Muneer, Syeda Fizza Fatima and Saira Bibi
Community pharmacists have substantial knowledge and ability to beat crucial threat associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the clinical settings. This elemental study was organize to govern the influence of pharmaceutical care provided by community pharmacists on the therapeutic management of various cardiovascular problems. This study involved 50 community pharmacists near hospital areas where OPD’s are conducted on regular basis by consultants. A questionnaire was designed to collect the feedback from patients to measure the outcomes of community pharmacists’ role. Our study showed that community pharmacists have enough knowledge to identify risk factors, manage and advice about their medications and need of life style changes to manage their conditions. The outcomes of study shows that more than the half of the patients were gratified with  the services of community pharmacists for treating or compensating crucial stages of cardiovascular diseases

14. Primary Amenorrhoea with Pituitary Dwarfism: A rare case report
Siva S*, Divya Gopineni, Shafi P, Chandra Sekhar
Females with pituitary dwarfism and a multiple deficiency of pituitary hormones show ovarian dysfunction due to hypogonadotropism. Primary amenorrhea can be diagnosed if a patient has normal secondary sexual characteristics but no menarche by 16 years of age. A 16 year-old female patient admitted in general medicine department with chief complaints of shortness of breath on exertion since 15 days, swelling of both legs since 10 days, loss of weight since 5 months, loss of appetite since 3 months, history of pain during swallowing. Pelvis scan examination reveals that uterus measures 3.2×0.5×0.5cm; uterus is hypo plastic, ovaries not visualized. Patient parents reveled that from patient birth to 11years of age her growth and other developments were normal, after that her growth is stopped and no changes were observed in development since 5 years. Patient has hypothyroidism so pituitary gland make an important role to maintain hormone levels, pituitary gland produces thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) which stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. Primary Amenorrhea, short stature and poorly developed secondary sexual characters which could have been contributed and should be subjected for karyotyping. This type of Pituitary Dwarfism is very difficult to manage.

15. Knowledge, Attitudes and Perception of Voluntary and Replacement Blood Donors regarding Organ Donation
Sudhir Prabhu H, Delma D’Cunha*
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and perception about organ donation among blood donors in Dakshin Kannada district of Karnataka State, India. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at blood donation camps and at blood banks where a total of 330 blood donors (both voluntary and replacement donors) were interviewed with the help of structured questionnaire. Data was entered into Microsoft excel sheet and analyzed. The statistical tests used were descriptive statistics like frequency and percentages. Results: 54.24% of donors were young adults, belonged to the age group of 26-40 years. Donors were predominantly male (79.09%). All the study subjects were of the opinion that pledging of organs is a noble act, with a majority (88.48%) expressing a desire to pledge their body organs after death. Conclusion: Interactive awareness sessions on organ donation should be organized at blood donation camps and at social events to provide proper information regarding body donation after death and the legal procedures involved so that it can aid in modern medical care.


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