Research in Pharmacy and Health Sciences

ISSN: 2455 5258
An International Peer Review Journal

Volume 2, Issue 1 : January 2016 – March 2016

1. Hepatoprotective effect of methanolic extracts of Phyllanthus virgatus against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats
Chattu Maheswara Rao
In this study, the methanolic extract of Phyllanthus virgatus was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The results of this study indicated that Phyllanthus virgatus exhibited moderate protective effect at a dose of 100-200 mg/kg by lowering serum level of liver enzymes such as alanine amino transferees (ALT), glutamate pyruvate transaminases (SGPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT), and total protein to a significant extent. Further, no significant effects were seen on blood serum level at a dose of 100-200 mg/kg body weight. The highest activity was observed at a dose of 200 mg/kg with a reduction of serum concentration of ALT, AST, total bilirubin and total protein. The methanolic extract of P. virgatus showed significant decrease in the levels of liver enzymes,   indicating the protection of hepatic cells thereby protecting against CCl4 induced hepatocellular injury.

2. Isolation and Characterization of Lytic Bacteriophages infecting Staphylococcus epidermidis
Ream Saleem and Ghanim Aboud Jaber Al-Mola
The Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates were obtained during a period extended between September 2014 and January 2015, depending on biochemical tests and VITEK 2 system. Several sewage water samples were assayed using a plaque assay of double agar overlay as a source of S. Epidermidis phages. The bacteriophages were described depending on plaques size and shapes. Phage 1 was the most predominant in the bacterial lawn and able to infect other S. species such as S. aureus. Therefore, it was decided to study the effect of temperature on its original titer. The results revealed a gradual decrease in the phage titer with increasing dilution number. Each temperature at several incubation periods, significantly vary depending on phage titer. The optimum temperature was 40 ° C, while the 80 ° C was represented the inhibitor temperature. L.S.D. at level (0.05) for interaction was  39.552. The pH 6.5 – 7.5 were represented the optimal pH for the best phage activity while the phage titer beginning to decline in above and below this range of optimal pH ,  L.S.D. at level 0.05 was 17.898.  In conclusion, our study found that Phage1 was considered as predominant phage because of their ability to infect other Staphylococci species such as S. Aureus.

3. Aromatherapy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: A review
Maria Ayub,  Amna Islam
Aromatherapy is most commonly used therapy for the relaxation purpose to overcome the symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders. Essential oils are most commonly used substances for this purpose. These are obtained from various plant species including lavender, rosemary, sage, and salvia. The objective of this study was to evaluate aromatherapy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. A computer-based search of Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsycINFO, AMED, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was performed. Trials were included if they were potential human trials assessing aromatherapy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders and utilized validated instruments to assess participant eligibility and clinical endpoints. Selection criteria of the study was decided and taken into consideration. Trials were identified that met all eligibility requirements. Individual trials investigating botanical sources and clinical effects of essential oils used in aromatherapy. Results of the trials are discussed to form the basis of a recommendation. No good quality evidence was identified on which to base a recommendation. However, no serious side effects were reported in any of the studies on the use of aromatherapy. Further studies are recommended to reach at any conclusion.

4. Evaluation of Microbial Load from Canned Soya Milk Drinks in Malaysia
Nur Amalina binti Mustafa, Muhammad Ashraf bin Redzuan, Muhamad Hazim bin Zuraimi, Muhamad Shuhaimi bin Shuib, Shahnaz Majeed, Farheen Sami, Vishal Badgujar, Mohammed Tahir Ansari*
Objective: Owing to the habit of consuming ready food among the citizens of Malaysia a study was conducted to evaluate 20 samples of canned soya milk for the presence of possible microbial content. The samples were collected randomly from shopping malls, restaurants and kiosk in Ipoh Malaysia. Methods: All samples collected across Ipoh, were subjected to test for presence bacteria in nutrient agar, blood agar and macConkey media. The possible microbial load was swapped from surface and soya milk content with a sterile cotton and streaked on nutrient agar, blood agar and macConkey culture media. The streaked petri plates were incubated for 48 hours at 37oC. Results: The study revealed negative microbial growth in all except two samples from the surface and soya milk content collected from a restaurant in nutrient agar and blood agar medium. The presence of microbes was conformed as gram positive staphylococcus sp. through gram staining. The positive growth may be imputed to poor storage condition at the restaurant. Conclusion:  It can be computed from the study that the majority of the samples were free from bacterial growth, suggesting strong in house quality control mechanism at the processing unit and exquisite storage conditions in malls and kiosk suggesting that soya milk available in malls and kiosk are fit for human consumption.

5. Impact of Foreign Bodies Poisoning In Daily Life and Role of Community Pharmacist in Prohibition of Poisoning
Durriya Hashmat, Erum Naz, Fatima Ahmed, Fatima Muzammil, Syeda Saghira Begum, Taiba Asim
Background: A foreign object is a substance or an entity that is found in human body but has no relation with body; it enters into the body through many routes. Poisoning is a condition that occurs through common substance when exposed to a person or living organism it damages their health and life and endanger for community. The majority of poisoning cases, especially in children, are associated with cleaning agents and pesticides. Cleaning agents are the substances (liquid, powder, granules) which are used for cleaning purpose and their main purpose is to kill germs and provide sterility. The ordinary cleaning agents include bleaches, detergents, solvents, kerosene and pesticides. Pesticides are the substances used for destroying, attracting the insects or micro-organisms which are harmful for humans and cultivated plants and crops. Objective: The objective of this study is to reduce the poisoning by foreign bodies (cleaning substances, pesticides) by guiding people that exposure to these objects can harm them. Methodology: A survey based questionnaire was circulated for about one month to check the awareness of people regarding the knowledge of handling the foreign bodies that include cleaning substances and pesticides for data collection, the students, children and household women were asked to fill the questionnaire according to their knowledge. Percentages were calculated to compile the results. Result: It was observed that there was lack of knowledge in children and in some cases household women were also a part of it. The major reason of poisoning in children is the careless behavior of household women while not keeping such things away from them.

6. Evaluation of acute and sub acute hepatotoxic activity of Trichodesma indicum aqueous methanolic extract in mice
Nadia Perveen, Khwaja Zafar Ahmed, Tehseen Irshad, Nayab Latif, Zainab Kaleem, Faiza Naseer
Objective: Present study was carried out to evaluate acute and subacute hepatotoxicity of Trichodesma indicum (whole plant). Methods: Toxicity study of Trichodesma indicum was carried out in Swiss mice after ingestion of the aqueous methanolic extract, during one day (acute toxicity) and after fifteen days (subacute toxicity). Results: The results showed that the LD50 of the extract was higher than 4000 mg/kg and subacute treatment showed no change in weight of the liver and ALT, ALP, AST, no marked effect on bilirubin, albumin, protein decreased and globulin values increased significantly. Histopathological studies also showed necrosis and excessive vacuolation in maximum dose. Conclusion: So, the extract showed a ladder like dose related hepatotoxicity. This showed that liver function showed mild injury by Trichodesma indicum in this study.

7. Importance of Literature in Pharmacovigilance: A Review
Amit Gupta*, Sunil Verma, Simranjeet Kaur
Pharmacovigilance is to track and detect new adverse drug reactions mainly due to drugs or due to any other chemical substance or similar entity. The knowledge of a drug’s adverse reactions can be increased by various means, including spontaneous reporting, intensive monitoring and literature searching. But, in this review, we discuss how the medical literature plays a crucial role in pharmacovigilance. It is necessary to improve systematic reviews of adverse drug reactions. As literature is one of the vital sources of signal detection, it is essential for pharmaceutical companies to establish pharmacovigilance programs that capitalize on the best available information from multiple data sources. So, it is important to develop a prototype that first reproduces and standardizes search strategies to have a better information retrieval. Marketing-authorization holders (MAH’s) are encouraged to be aware of publications in their local and international journals frequently or according to local regulation and to bring attention to the company safety departments also.

8. India’s Frontline Health Workforce: Theoretical Perspectives and Operational Challenges
Prakash Babu Kodali
FHWs are among the most utilized health workforce in majority of LMIC especially in India. Effective use of the FHWs was considered instrumental in the provision of Primary health care (PHC) and the potency of FHW was recognized to be essential to achieve the targets of MDG. FHWs consists of a wide range of health workers such as CHWs, Mid-level care providers, Physician-assistants, Nurses, Doctors etc., who are most of the time the first level contact of the health system to the people, majorly engaged in provision of PHC and the services focusing on disease prevention and health promotion. Unlike the most of FHWs the CHWs are the group of FHWs whose potency is greatly explored and well documented since there conception in 1950’s as barefoot doctors in china. FHWs by itself is a wide area of research and this review does not talk much about already well known areas in frontline health workers. The review is split in to two parts with first part talking about the theoretical perspectives in-terms of FHWs and second part talks about operational challenges. First part focuses much on other theoretical concepts in FHWs such as Task-shifting, Public-health nurses and mid-level care providers etc., which are not very much known, compared to their counter parts and majority of the times ignored. The second part of the review has its emphasis on the prime operational challenges which are faced by the FHWs. By summing-up the majority of literature related to the different theoretical concepts in the area of FHW it reflects on the options available to provide efficient health care to the underserved populations and the challenges being faced while dealing with FHWs. It could be helpful in guiding the planning and implementation of sustainable, holistic and cost effective interventions to provide universal PHC.

9. Paediatric regional anaesthesia: Comparing caudal Anaesthesia and Ilioinguinal block for Paediatric Inguinal Herniotomy
Srinivas Teja*, N.V. Rama Rao, P. Sharmila Nirojini, Venkateswara rao, Ramarao Nadendla
Caudal anaesthesia and ilioinguinal block are effective, safe anaesthetic techniques for paediatric inguinal herniotomy. This review article aims to educate medical students about these techniques by examining their safety and efficacy in paediatric surgery, as well as discussing the relevant anatomy and pharmacology. The roles of general anaesthesia in combination with regional anaesthesia, and that of awake regional anaesthesia, are discussed, as is the administration of caudal adjuvants and concomitant intravenous opioid analgesia.

10. Nanorobotics: The Future of Medicines
Manish Kumar Sharma, Rashmi Gupta
Nano-robots are the technology of creating machines or robots close to the microscopic scale to nanometer. Nano-robots is a truly multidisciplinary field which comprises of the simultaneous advantage of medicinal and robots knowledge disciplines will merge including robots, and mechanical, chemical and biomedical engineering, chemistry, biology, physical science and mathematics or arithmetic. Nano-robots medicine is therapeutically more effective, individualized, dose reduced and more affordable medicine. Nano-robots medicines are being developed to improve drug bioavailability. Target drug delivery is currently the most advanced application of Nano-robots in medicine. Nanotechnology is being used to produce new generations of biomaterial scaffolds that can encourage or support cell growth and differentiation into often complex tissue types. Nano-robots medicine include targeting semi-metallic or metallic nanoparticles, e.g. silica, iron or gold, to tumor sites and then activating them by external means, e.g. light, magnetic field, ultrasound, to produce heat or soft radiation locally that can destroy the cancer cells in situ gene therapy cell therapy. Nano medicines are better imaging-techniques and other diagnostic tools Nano-robots opens up new ways for vast and abundant research work in which many. Nanorobots have strong potential to revolutionize healthcare to treat disease in future.

11. Drug-Induced Agranulocytosis: A Mini Review  
Pavithra D*1, Praveen D1 and Vijey Aanandhi M
Agranulocytosis is also known to be granulopenia, causing neutropenia in circulating blood streams .The destruction of white blood cells takes place which leads to increase in the infection rate in an individual where immune system of the individual is suppressed. The symptoms includes fever, sore throat, mouth ulcers. These are commonly seen as adverse effects of a particular drug and are prescribed for the common diagnostic test for regular monitoring of complete blood count in an admitted patient. Drug-induced agranulocytosis remains a serious adverse event due to occurrence of severe sepsis with deep infection leading to pneumonia, septicaemia, and septic shock in two/third of the patient. Antibiotics seem to be the major causative weapon for this disorder. Certain drugs mainly anti-thyroid drugs, ticlopidine hydrochloride, spironolactone, clozapine, antileptic drugs (clozapine), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, dipyrone are the potential causes. Bone marrow insufficiency followed by destruction or limited proliferative bone marrow destruction takes place. Chemotherapy is rarely seen as a causative agent for this disorder. Genetic manipulation may also include as one of the reason. Agranulocytosis can be recovered within two weeks but the mortality and morbidity rate during the acute phase seems to be high, appropriate adjuvant treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics are prerequisites for the management of complicated neutropenia. Drugs that are treated for this are expected to change as a resistant drug to the patient. The pathogenesis of agranulocytosis is not yet known. A comprehensive literature search has been carried out in PubMed, Google Scholar and articles pertaining to drug-induced agranulocytosis were selected for review.

12. Ranitidine Induced Thrombocytopenia: A Case report  
Kanad Deepak*,  Nishant Verma, Umesh Kumar, Megha Garg
Ranitidine is H2 receptor antagonist. In some critically ill patient it induces thrombocytopenia, which is a rare drug related problems arise during treatment in intensive care unit (ICU) set up. We are going to present a case of 18 year old boy, which had fever and joint pain at the time of admission. Intravenous ceftriaxone, Paracetamol and Ranitidine was administered. Repeated lab investigations showed decrease in WBC and Platelet counts. After excluding the other causes, it was concluded that Ranitidine was the cause of thrombocytopenia.

13. Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Cancer Treatment in Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital  
Hemraj, Raj Kumar, Sourabh Kosey, Amit Sharma, Nalini Negi
To determine the most common physical side effects experienced by local chemotherapy patients. Their perceptions of these side effects and informational needs from clinical pharmacists were also evaluated. This was a single center, observational cross-sectional study conducted at department of General Surgery, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab. A face to face interview was conducted. Information collected included chemotherapy related side effects after last chemotherapy experience, the most worrisome side effects, overlooked by healthcare professionals and the preferred method, amount and source of receiving related information. In this study, hundred patients were enrolled out of them 48 were male and 52 were female. When differential calculations was done, common side effects or adverse effects of chemotherapy in the patients of breast, lung cancer, Ovarian Cancer, Colon cancer, Prostate cancer, Lymphoma Cancer, Cervix cancer where there is much irregular medicine intake 57.4% may be due to common problem of joint pain reported by all the patients under study, with the consecutive problem of nausea and vomiting. The high prevalence of chemotherapy related side effects among local patients is a major concern and findings of their perceptions and informational needs may serve as a valuable guide for clinical pharmacists and physicians to help in side effect management. This study shows the common problems reported by the patients when they are suffering from cancer condition, according to their incidence perceptions as experienced by the patient, this will allow the physician and clinical pharmacist to effectively counsel and manage the common symptoms as reported prior to its occurrence in the patient, so that withdrawal can be checked.

14. Eating Attitudes of Female Pharmacy students in Pakistan: a Cross-Sectional Psychometric Study  
Aqeel Aslam, Ushna Laraib, Iqra Afzal, Shingraf Zaib, Asma Riaz, Aqsa Ashfaq, Ammara Shamshad, Babar Murtaza, Sajid Bashir
The prevalence of eating disorders among University students has been on rise throughout the world. The present descriptive cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of eating disorders among the female students of pharmacy department at University of Sargodha, Pakistan using well established EAT-26 questionnaire. The study included 177 female undergraduate pharmacy students from all five years of Pharm D. An EAT-26 score over 20 was indicator of disturbed eating behavior. Out of the total 177 students who participated the study, 47 (26.6%) students had disturbed eating behavior. The mean EAT-26 score was 14.7. According to BMI calculations, 31.64% of total individuals were underweight, 59.32% normal, 6.78% overweight and 2.26% belonged to obese category. The prevalence of eating disorders was found to be much higher than the studies conducted at developed countries. There is an urgent need of an effort to increase awareness of such disorders among students and general public. Conduction of such study at other institutes and at larger scale is recommended.


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