The above study attempts to evaluate the phytochemical and antimicrobial action of rhizomes of Acorus calamus Linn. belongs to the family Acoraceae, with different solvents. Rhizomes are used for different ailments like a cough, bronchitis, asthma and for poor digestive functions. Clinically important bacteria viz Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC29737), Escherichia coli (ATCC2068), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC9027) and Candida albicans (ATCC0231) were used. The in-vitro antibacterial activity was performed by Agar well diffusion method. Ethanolic extract of Acorus calamus showed the highest zone of inhibition against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa and against the fungus C. albicans. However further studies are needed for their modes of action on bacterial cells.
Validation is a establishing the documented evidence, which provides a high degree of assurance that a specific process will consistently produce a product meeting its pre-determined specifications and quality attributes. To further enhance the effectiveness and safety of the drug product after approval, many regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also require that the drug product be tested for its identity, strength, quality, purity and stability before it can be released for use. For this reason, pharmaceutical validation and process controls are important in spite of the problems that may be encountered. This review provides an overview of pharmaceutical validation and process controls in formulation of tablet dosage form. There are generally eight major areas that included in process validation of tablets like, biobatch relationship, raw materials, manufacturing procedures and equipment, granulation/mix analysis, in-process controls, test results with validated methods, investigations/product failures and site review. Thus, validation concept can be applied to all the steps involving in tablet formulation.
In the era of competitive use of medical devices, stringent regulatory standards should be followed to ensure that the devices are safe, well studied and have minimum adverse reactions. Recently introduced guidelines and the amendment in the law will provide adequate guidance for both the manufacturers and competent authorities to manage cases efficiently and appropriately. India has emerged as one of the leaders in pharmaceutical sector. Like many other amendments in Drugs and Cosmetics Act that have boosted the global confidence in pharmaceutical sector in India, guidelines for devices will encourage the much needed research for devices in medical field. Pharmacy personnel can certainly play an important role in the regulation of medical devices. Safety, risks, effectiveness and performance of the medical devices need to be well established and regulated properly. It is necessary that the guidelines should be implemented and regulated effectively for a productive outcome to upgrade the health status of individuals.
In the present work, a series of some new substituted 3, 5 dimethyl pyrazole (4a-c), 3-methyl pyrazol-5-one derivatives (5a-c), 3-Methyl- 1-(substituted phenyl) pyrazol-5-ones (7a-b) and 2, 3-dimethyl-1- (substituted phenyl) pyrazol-5-one (8a-b) has been synthesized. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by physical, chemical, analytical and spectral data. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory activity. The biological in vivo evaluation of these compounds in experimental models (carrageenan-induced oedema) proved the presence of anti-inflammatory activity.
Drug use evaluation is the method of performance improvement that focuses on evaluation and improvement of drug use processes to achieve optimal patient outcomes. Assessment of antimicrobials can be performed by evaluating their use. The quality of pharmaceuticals is a worldwide concern, poor quality and substandard medicines can cause harm in various ways. In developing countries including Pakistan there are the number of cases reported showing high incidence of empirical use of drugs. Empirical use of antibiotics leads to antimicrobial resistance, which forces the therapy to switch from 1st line drugs to 2nd line. Also increased use of antibiotics other than specified treatment results in increase patient stay at hospital and cost. The objective of this study was to evaluate the drug use practices of Ceftriaxone in private sector tertiary care hospital. In this concurrent cross-sectional study, medication orders of 50 patients who received Ceftriaxone were studied from August to October 2013. Data were collected randomly by using a structured format and evaluated against the standard criteria set from British National Formulary to evaluate drug use practices. It was observed that 42% of patients were prescribed with Ceftriaxone for UTI’s. Majority of the patients (54%) were of age ranging from 20-30 years and from male gender (90%). A dose of 2gm/day was prescribed in 52% of the patients. The dose and frequency that we observed were the same as that mentioned in standard (BNF). The prescribing practices were satisfactory according to our study but it can be enhanced further by adhering to national standard guidelines.
The available drugs for the treatment of diabetes, such as Insulin or Oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more side effects. So the search for newer anti-diabetic drugs with minimum or no side effects from herbal plants is a challenge as per world health organization (WHO) recommendations. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of carbohydrate, protein and fat which are characterized by hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia which is deficient insulin production or ineffectiveness in insulin actions. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti diabetic potency of syzygium cumini leaf on the blood glucose level in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diabetic Wistar strain rats were treated with standard drug Glibenclamide and test drug syzygium cumini at 100mg, 200mg. The hypoglycemic effect was determined in the rats and the efficacy of the test drug was compared to the standard drug Glibenclamide. Syzygium cumini leaf was orally administered for 14 days in alloxan induced diabetic rats. At the end of the study duration blood glucose level and Biochemical parameters were statistically analyzed. Based on these results of the study this syzygium cumini produced a significant reduction in blood glucose levels when compared with diabetic control rats and hence the present research work proved that the syzygium cumini possess hypoglycemic effect.
Geographical Information System (GIS) is computer software used for collection, storage, transformation, retrieval and display of geo spatial data from the real GIS world. The geographical data represent the real world in terms of their position with respect to a known coordinate system, their attributes and their geographical relationship with other objects. GIS utilization is being recognized as having the potential to improve the health of that specific population. GIS contributes in policy making, monitoring, implementation, and research in health sector. Need of population according to information provided by the GIS can be determined, which gives a quick and comprehensive review of regional and geographical health problems so that policy makers can utilize this for policy making and for forecasting the epidemics and other community health problems by using GIS. GIS system is a powerful and effective tool for creating intelligent/guide maps for, e.g., location of local health facilities, trauma centers, and specialized hospitals. It’s easy to purchase the GIS (hardware and software), but its proper utilization is a big task for the organizations to achieve their specific goals.
The intention behind this review work is to enable every single individual around the India thoroughly understand the emerging field in Indian pharmacy i.e., Pharm.D, newly introduced in 2008 by the Pharmacy Council of India. It gives a doctorate degree after five years of graduation and one year internship in a hospital. Clinical pharmacy denotes the practice of pharmacy beside the bed side of the patient. The Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D) degree, is a professional doctor degree in pharmacy and is a global program in pharmacy education. As the practice of pharmacy evolves, requiring more clinically oriented healthcare providers, Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) programs expand their training to more hospital sites to expose students to the provision of safe, effective, and economic drug therapy to patients.