Nephrolithiasis (Hisat-E-Kulyah) and Its Management: An Overview

Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common health problems that affect approximately 15 % population worldwide and about 2.3% population of India. Most (75% to 80%) kidney stones are calcium stones, composed of calcium oxalate and/or calcium phosphate. These stones are generally associated with high concentration of calcium in the blood or urine.  The classical features of renal colic are sudden severe pain. It is usually caused by the stones in the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter, causing dilatation, stretching and spasm of the ureter. Pain starts in the loin about the level of the costovertebral angle. Typical symptoms of acute renal colic are intermittent colicky flank pain that may radiate to the lower abdomen or groin, often associated with nausea and vomiting. Many stones are asymptomatic and discovered during investigations for other conditions. Small urinary calculi pass out of the body without any clinical intervention. According to Jaleenoos (Galen) renal stones are formed when rooh (gaseous matter) is trapped in the spaces of the kidney and consolidates to form hard substances. Another cause of renal calculi is ulceration of the kidney, in which pus accumulates and solidifies, thereby forming renal stones or at least establishing a nidus for the formation of stones. Avicenna contends that the persistence of “morbid matter” in the urinary tract is instrumental in the formation of ghaliz madda (viscid matter).  In Unani system of medicine the main aim of management for nephrolithiasis is to make morbid and abnormal humors easily extractible from the body through the excretory system. This paper will deal with the literature, clinical aspect and management of the Nephrolithiasis in Unani System of Medicine.
Keywords: Nephrolithiasis, morbid matter, Hippocrates, dietotherapy, Xanthine