Hidden Potential of Natural Herb Carissa Carandas (Karonda)

Carissa carandas (F. Apocynaceae) is an important fruit commonly known as Karonda ‘Christ’s thorn’ which grows wild in bushes. Carissa carandas is a useful food and medicinal plant of India, found to be widely distributed throughout subtropical and topical regions. The plant has been used as a traditional medicinal plant over thousands of years in the Ayurvedic, Unani, and Homoeopathic system of medicine. The major bioactive constituents, which impart medicinal value to the herb, are alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and large amounts of cardiac glycosides, triterpenoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. Roots were reported to contain volatile principles including 2-acetyl phenol, lignan, carinol, esquiterpenes (carissone, carindone), lupeol, βsitosterol, 16β-hydroxybetulinic acid, α-amyrin, β-sitosterol glycoside, and des-Nmethylnoracronycine, whereas leaves were reported to contain triterpenoid constitutes as well as tannins. While, fruits have been reported to contain carisol, epimer of αamyrin, linalool, β-caryophyllene, carissone, carissic acid, carindone, ursolic acid, carinol, ascorbic acid, lupeol, and β-sitosterol. Traditionally the plant has been used in the treatment of scabies, intestinal worms, pruritus, biliousness and also used as antiscorbutic, anthelmintic. The notable biological activities reported are analgesic, anti inflammatory, anti pyretic, cardiotonic and histamine releasing. This review has been written to presents a detailed survey of the literature on phytochemistry, traditional and biologically evaluated medicinal uses of C. carandas to promote safe and effective
herbal treatments to cure a number of diseases.

Keywords: Carissa Carandas, Phytochemistry, Nutraceutical value, Pharmacological properties.