Neuropathic pain refers lesions or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system either in the periphery or centrally. Examples of neuropathic pain include painful polyneuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, and post-stroke pain. Clinically, neuropathic pain is characterized by spontaneous ongoing or shooting pain and evoked amplified pain responses after noxious or non-noxious stimuli. Neuropathic pain is treated as a ‘blanket condition’ in this guideline regardless of its aetiologies, unless there is valid and robust clinical and health economics evidence that shows the clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness of a particular treatment for a specific neuropathic pain condition. Management of neuropathic pain requires an interdisciplinary approach, centered around pharmacological treatment. A better understanding of neuropathic pain and in particular of the translation of pathophysiological mechanisms into sensory signs will lead to a more effective and specific mechanism-based treatment approach.