Genotoxicity Caused by Sodium Fluoride in Bone Marrow Cells of Mice

Abstract

Background: Fluoride is one of the potent toxicants to which humans are exposed. It induces various anomalies such as skeletal fluorosis, osteoporosis, cancer, dental problems, psychological problems and arthritic pains. Little literature are available about the genotoxicity of fluoride in bone marrow cells of mice. Therefore, the present has been undertaken to study the genotoxicity of fluoride in mice. Methods: Laboratory inbred albino Swiss Mice (Mus musculus) of average body weight 25 g were fed orally with 2 ppm NaF by soaking with bread for 30 consecutive days. 300 well-spread m¹¹etaphase plates were screened randomly. A number of abnormal cells and chromosomal abnormalities were calculated and interpreted based on the statistic. Result: Sodium fluoride (2 ppm/animal/day) when administered orally to Albino Swiss mice (Mus musculus) for 30 days increased the frequency of abnormality by 5.66% compared to 1.66% of control in a mitotic chromosome in bone marrow cells. The increase in the frequency of chromosome anomaly was mainly due to a significant increase in both gross and individual type. Hypoploidy and chromatid breaks are found to be more frequent. Conclusion: Fluoride pollution is a global problem and induces genotoxic effects on animals, especially those who drink water containing non-permissible concentrations of fluoride. A safety measure must be followed either by supplying the processed water without the fluoride concentration to human population or by supplementing any antioxidants to nullify the harmful effect of fluoride.

Keywords: Sodium Fluoride, Chromosome, Bone Marrow, Albino Swiss mice.